Nepal: Unresolved property issues and IDP policy hiatus undermine search for durable solutions
Internally displaced family in Nepalgunj. (Photo: NRC, 2007)
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31 December 2012
More than six years after the government and Maoist rebels ended their decade-long armed conflict, the peace process remains largely incomplete. Widespread impunity for perpetrators of human rights violations committed during the conflict, endless political bickering, corruption and the government’s relative absence from rural areas has largely undermined state legitimacy.
Nearly all IDPs have returned, but an undetermined number, believed to be in the thousands, have been unable or unwilling to go back to their places of origin, mainly as a result of unresolved land and property issues and security concerns. Land expropriated by the Maoists has often been sold or given to landless or tenant farmers. The sustainability of returns has often been undermined by the absence of state services and a lack of livelihood assistance. Assistance provided by the government
to IDPs since 2007 has mainly focused on helping them return by covering their transportation costs.
Most IDPs no longer have assistance needs related to their displacement as they have managed to integrate locally, mainly in urban centres and cities. Some, however, particularly women and children, have struggled to find proper accommodation and access basic services. They are also more likely to be exposed to a range of threats including exploitation and sexual violence.
Since 2007, episodes of violence from separatist and criminal groups in central Terai, the region south of the Himalayan foothills, have led to the forced displacement of thousands of people. Both hill-dwelling Pahadis and their wealthier Madhesi counterparts on the plains have been affected, with most reported to have moved to Hetauda, Chitwan district and Kathmandu.
Nepal: Government launches plan for children affected by conflict
(25 March 2011)
The Nepal government announced
last week that children affected by the Maoist insurgency between 1996 and 2006 would soon benefit from a three-year rehabilitation programme. After an initial data-gathering phase to assess the scale of the problem and identify needs, the National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Children Affected by Armed Conflict will provide
child combatants, displaced children and those who lost their parents with improved access to education, health and psychological care, and vocational skills training. The Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction (MoPR) will implement the plan, while the Prime Minister’s Office, cabinet ministers, the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare and an unnamed civil society group will all monitor its progress. The MoPR will encourage NGOs to take part in the programme.
Although there are no reliable figures, it is believed
that the conflict left at least 40,000 children displaced. In 2009, a children’s rights group estimated
their number at nearly 10,000. In 2010, some 50,000 people displaced by the conflict remained unwiling or unable to go home. Between 2007 and 2010, the MoPR provided
a lump sum of Npr.2,400 ($34) as “education assistance” to almost 4,800 children.
As of early 2012, it was estimated that around 50,000 Nepalese displaced between 1996 and 2006 remained unable or unwilling to return to their homes due to unresolved land and property issues, insecurity and lack of assistance. This does not include several thousand people displaced by inter-communal violence and insecurity since 2007 in the central and eastern Terai (the region south of the Himalayan foothills), a group largely ignored by both the government and international humanitarian organisations. Displacement in Nepal has largely followed a rural-urban pattern, with most people moving in small groups to seek refuge with friends and relatives in the main towns and cities where most IDPs remain. (...)
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11 April 2012
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Internal Displacement Profile
"Causes and Background","Background","The Maoist insurgency","Unrest and displacement after the November 2006 CPA","Other causes of displacement","Peace process"
"Population Figures and Profile","General","Global figures","Disaggregated data"
"Patterns of Displacement","Displacement in the Terai","Displacement due to the civil war","Displacement to India and elsewhere"
"Physical Security & Freedom of Movement","Physical security","Freedom of movement"
"Subsistence Needs","General","Food","Health","Water & sanitation","Shelter and non-food items","Vulnerable groups"
"Access to Education","General","Obstacles to education"
"Issues of Self-Reliance and Public Participation","Self-reliance","Public participation","Access to land"
"Documentation Needs and Citizenship","General","Documentation needs"
"Issues of Family Unity, Identity and Culture","General"
"Patterns of Return and Resettlement","Return prospects","Obstacles to return","Return movements","Re-displacement","Policy"
"National and International Responses","National response","International response"
Previous Profile updates
- Key Documents
- Nepal Conflict Report 2012 - An analysis of conflict-related violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law between February 1996 and 21 November 2006, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), October 2012
- Field Bulletin - Migration patterns in the Central Tarai: Has an equilibrium been disrupted?, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Nepal, 30 July 2012
- Humanitarian Contingency Plan for the Protection Cluster Nepal – 2011, Nepal IASC Protection Cluster, 11 August 2011
- Field Bulletin - Longer-Term Disaster Displaced: A Forgotten Group, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Nepal, July 2011
- United Nations Peace-Building Strategy for Nepal 2011-12, United Nations (UN), June 2011
- Fourth Consolidated Annual Progress Report on Activities Implemented under the United Nations Peace Fund for Nepal - Report of the Administrative Agent of the United Nations Peace Fund for Nepal for the Period 1 January to 31 December 2010, Nepal Peace Trust Fund, 31 May 2011
- National Action Plan On Implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 & 1820 [2011– 2016], Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction (MoPR), February 2011
- Nepal Peace and Development Strategy 2010-2015, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Nepal, 2011
- Nepal Protection Cluster Strategy 2010- 2011, Nepal IASC Protection Cluster, October 2010
- Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP): Mid-Year Review of the 2010 Humanitarian Transition Appeal for Nepal, OCHA, 20 July 2010
- "Livelihood strategies of internally displaced people in Western Nepal: Some observations", in Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal (2010), pp. 217-257, Ghimire, Anita; Upretti, Bishnu Raj; Pokharel, Subash, 2010
- Distant from Durable Solutions: Conflict-Induced Internal Displacement in Nepal, Nepal IDP Working Group, 15 June 2009
- Internally Displacement Information Booklet, National Human Rights Commission, Nepal, December 2008
- Procedural Directives 2007 of National Policy Relating to Internally Displaced Persons, Government of Nepal, 20 November 2007
- National IDP Policy, Government of Nepal, February 2007
- National Policy on Internally Displaced Persons, Government of Nepal, March 2006
Distant from Durable Solutions: Conflict-Induced Internal Displacement in Nepal, Nepal IDP Working Group, 15 June 2009 (Report) / (Press release)