|Country Page Title *||Colombia Improved government response yet to have impact for IDPs|
|Disclaimer (appears below page title)|
|Active / Inactive||Active|
|Include in Special Reports Page?||No|
|Latest ID Profile (PDF)||Colombia -December 2011|
|Second Overview/Report Label||Resumen del Informe en Español|
|Previous ID Profiles (PDF)||Colombia - September 2011|
Colombia - July 2009
Colombia - October 2008
Colombia -November 2007
Colombia - June 2006
Colombia May 2005
Colombia February 2004
Colombia May 2003
Colombia June 2002
Colombia February 2001
Colombia July 2001
Colombia December 1999
|Latest Update Page|
|Last Updated (manual)||12/29/2011|
|Summary Text for Latest Updates||Colombia’s government, led since 2010 by President Juan Manuel Santos, has changed its discourse in favour of those who have suffered human rights violations due the conflict and violence within the country. However, it is yet to translate this into effective action to protect the rights of Colombia’s internally displaced people (IDPs) and other victims of conflict. Displacement has continued in 2011 at the same rate as in previous years, as have attacks on IDPs and human rights activists. IDPs continue to have only limited access to the basic necessities of life.|
|Right Hand Panel Sort Order|
|Right Hand Panel - Box 1||Maps|
|Right Hand Panel - Box 2||Picture Gallery|
|Right Hand Panel - Box 3||News|
|Right Hand Panel - Box 4||Recent Reports|
|Right Hand Panel - Box 5||Links|
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|Right Hand Panel - Box 7||Flexible Box 2|
|Include Additional Resources?||Yes|
|Images (used on Country Page / Latest Updates / Homepage)|
|Small Image for Homepage|
|Image (max width 150 pixels)||col_cp_dec2011.jpg|
|Strap Line (use <br> to format)||IDPs in workshop, Norte de Santander. (Photo: NRC Colombia)|
|Image URL (include http://)|
|Include Picture Gallery Panel?||No|
|Include Maps Panel?||Yes|
|Map Thumbnail||Desplazamiento en Colombia - Expulsiones I Semestre 2008|
|Include News Panel?||Yes|
|IDP News Alerts||EF944262A4CE9C30C1257961005ADFDB~Colombia: Land restitution goes forward despite violent resistance and complaints on lack of consultation|
6EA8ADBF66233BE9C12575E0005A4E6E~Colombia: IDPs’ reparation hopes fade as “victim’s law” repealed
|Documents / Recent Reports Panel|
|Include Documents Panel?||Yes|
|Panel Title||Recent Reports|
|Recent Reports (Documents)|
|Include Further Info Panel?||No|
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|Include Flexible Panel?||Yes|
|Panel Title||IDMC reports|
<img src="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpGraphics)/252B422146629465C1257A21002EF3EE/$file/helpage-idmc-the-neglected-generation-june2012.jpg" alt="" border="0">
The neglected generation: the impact of displacement on older people, June 2012 <br/>
( <a href="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/E2875D44941FD9B4C1257A21002EC242/$file/helpage-idmc-the-neglected-generation-june2012.pdf"><b>En</b></a> )
<img src="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpGraphics)/C67883B3EA836373C12577D600487800/$file/col_scr_nov10.jpg" alt="" border="0">
Building momentum for land restoration: Towards property restitution for IDPs in Colombia, November 2010 <br/>
( <a href="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/A0CCF5D6CC55525DC12577D600458E97/$file/Colombia_SCR_Nov2010.pdf"><b>En</b></a> | <a href="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/8945C9FC818D017DC12577F2003BBB05/$file/Colombia_SCR_Nov2010_sp.pdf"><b>Sp</b></a> )
<img src="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpGraphics)/0170B4562FF43327C12574BA002A472C/$file/santa_marta_report.jpg" alt="" border="0">
Tufts-IDMC study on Santa Marta, September 2008 <br/>
( <a href="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/C21C5C6570D06368C12574BA0029B466/$file/urban_displacement_santa_marta_08.pdf"><b>En</b></a> | <a href="/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/DE1EEC76C2927C23C1257571003B3D12/$file/urban_displacement_santa_marta_08_sp.pdf"><b>Sp</b></a> )
|Flexible Panel 2|
|Include Flexible Panel?||Yes|
|Panel Title||Life stories|
|Panel Text||Go to the <b><a href="http://www.idpvoices.org" class="red">IDP Voices website</a></b> and read and listen to stories of internally displaced Colombians|
|Country IDP Facts |
|Number of IDPs (number only)||4,900,000 - 5,500,000 |
|Govt. figures||4,900,000 (December 2012)|
|Other figures||5,454,766 (CODHES, December 2011)|
|Number of refugees||113,605 (UNHCR, as of December 2011)|
|Total Population||45.7 million|
|Short Comment (stats table)||As part of the 2011 Victim's Law, the Colombian government introduced a new victim's registry in which IDPs are also included. By the end of the year, neither the cummulative figure of IDPs nor new displacements in 2012 were definitive because requests for registration had increased significantly and there was a backlog in the evaluation of declarations by the government. While the government's figure is one million higher than by the end of 2011, it represents both new displacements in 2012 and displacements that took place in previous years. |
At year end, CODHES, had not yet published its 2012 figures of displacement.
Both government and CODHES figures are cumulative and do not take into account possible cases of returs, local integration or resettlement.
|Link to Global Figues Envelopes||/idmc/website/countries.nsf/(httpEnvelopes)/A7E1B7BD7528B329C12575E500525165?OpenDocument#expand|
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|Include At A Glance Text?||Yes|
|At A Glance Title||At a glance|
|Include IDP News Alert Text?||Yes|
|IDP News Alert Text||IDP News Alert|
|Include Latest Text?||Yes|
|Default Button||IDP News Alert|
|At a Glance Text|
Download Americas Overview
31 December 2012
Internal armed conflict and human rights abuses have caused massive internal displacement in Colombia over the past five decades. Two armed opposition groups, FARC and the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional or ELN); armed groups which have emerged since the demobilisation of paramilitary organisations between 2003 and 2006; and the Colombian security forces all continued to cause displacements during 2012.
The launch of a peace process between the government and FARC in October created an invaluable opportunity for peace. Talks have taken place, however, amid ongoing hostilities and both parties have reportedly used violence to consolidate their negotiating positions. Leaders of groups representing IDPs have also emphasised that a peace agreement with FARC would not end displacement, given the number of other armed groups at large in Colombia.
The implementation of the 2011 Victims’ Law has had a significant impact on the registration of IDPs and total figures on the government registry. The law allows for possible reparations and restitution, and has created an incentive for people displaced over the years to request inclusion on the registry. As a result, neither the cumulative total nor the figure for new displacements in 2012 were definitive, because registration requests increased significantly and there was a backlog in processing them.
As of the end of the year, there were 4.9 million IDPs on the government registry. The figure is a million higher than in 2011, but includes both new displacements and those that took place in previous years. As it is cumulative, it does not account for the fact that some IDPs may have returned, integrated locally or settled elsewhere in the country. The registry does not include people displaced by post-demobilisation armed groups, which are responsible for a significant proportion of displacements. CODHES, the main civil society organisation monitoring displacement in Colombia, had yet to publish its figures for 2012.
As in previous years, most people were displaced from rural to urban areas. An increase in violence and human rights abuses within urban areas, however, led to a significant rise in intra-urban displacements, with more than 8,800 people reportedly forced to flee, particularly in Buenaventura, Medellín, Soacha and Tumaco. Other small and medium-sized towns have also been affected. The coastal departments of Antioquia, Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca and Córdoba produced the highest numbers of IDPs in 2012.
Mass displacements were widespread. Causes included the Peru activities of post-demobilisation armed groups, clashes between insurgent and government forces, threats against leaders and whole communities, fighting between armed groups for control of urban areas, pressure on communities to take part in illegal mining, and forced recruitment. UNHCR estimates that at least 9,690 families fled their homes in around 137 mass displacements during 2012, twice as many as in the previous year. As in 2011, post-demobilisation armed groups caused the highest number of mass displacements.
Ethnic minority groups, including indigenous and Afro-Colombian people, continue to make up a significant proportion of IDPs. Their territories are in rural areas where most of the confrontations between armed opposition groups and government forces take place. A disproportionate number of women and people under the age of 25 have also been displaced.
IDPs continue to have only limited access to basic necessities, particularly housing and livelihood opportunities. They also have less access to basic services than the general population. Ninety-four per cent live below the poverty line, and 77 per cent in extreme poverty.
The Victims’ Law includes a number of measures covering humanitarian assistance for IDPs and the restitution of land, but implementation has been hampered by a lack of financial resources and delays in the appointment of essential staff such as judges. It was reported that more than 116,000 victims’ claims went unprocessed in 2012, effectively excluding the claimants from humanitarian assistance. The land restitution process also faced violent resistance, and more than 700 leaders claiming their land rights received death threats.
After declaring in 2004 that the government’s inadequate response to internal displacement was unconstitutional, the Constitutional Court continued its oversight during 2012. In an important ruling in September, it held that the killings of human rights activists and land restitution claimants were to be treated as crimes against humanity.
International humanitarian organisations continued to coordinate their activities through six clusters covering all phases of the displacement cycle.
Colombia: Critical milestone in FARC peace process signals joint commitment on land restitution to IDPs (31 May 2013)
On 26 May the Colombian government and the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) signed an agreement on land issues, marking a critical milestone in the on-going peace process. A joint press release highlighted that the accord promotes the return of stolen land to IDPs. While the government has already undertaken land restitution processes, such as those stated in the 2011 Victims’ Law, they have faced numerous challenges.
Land reform is one of five agenda items that the negotiating parties agreed to address, alongside political participation, illicit drugs, decommissioning weapons and victims’ rights. The government of Colombia reiterated that the entry into force of the agreement on land issues is conditional; its implementation depends on reaching agreements on the remaining four issues.
Land restitution is particularly important for displaced indigenous people and Afro-Colombians, who have a special attachment to their land. According to OCHA, they represented 37 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively, of victims of mass displacement episodes in 2012, and further make up three and ten per cent of the country’s population.
Colombia’s government, led since 2010 by President Juan Manuel Santos, has changed its discourse in favour of those who have suffered human rights violations due the conflict and violence within the country. However, it is yet to translate this into effective action to protect the rights of Colombia’s internally displaced people (IDPs) and other victims of conflict. Displacement has continued in 2011 at the same rate as in previous years, as have attacks on IDPs and human rights activists. IDPs continue to have only limited access to the basic necessities of life.
Colombia: Armed violence leads to mass displacement in Chocó (23 August 2012)
Armed violence has caused the mass displacement of people in a remote area of Chocó in Colombia’s Pacific Coast. An area with a long history of violence, the indigenous Embera people have been particularly targeted in this latest event with indigenous leaders claiming that as many as 2,000 people have been displaced. Further reports suggest that the movements of 800 families are restricted because of the violence.
The UN humanitarian team reported that some of the IDPs were sheltered in host communities while many found refuge in a school, where they suffered from a lack of access to basic services. Four cases of cholera were reported because of lack of water and overcrowding.
While the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other organizations provided aid, food insecurity remained high because crops have been lost because IDPs can not access their land.
Meanwhile, humanitarian funding for Colombia has declined in recent years, from 75 million dollars in 2010 to 64 million in 2011.
CORRECTION: The government allocated COP 6.1 trillion ($3.4 billion) in its 2012 budget to support the implementation of the 2011 “Victims’ Law”. It also reportedly set aside COP 1.65 trillion ($910 million) to prevent or reduce the risk of disasters during the 2011 rainy season. (...)
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Mejoras en la respuesta gubernamental aún no surten efecto en los desplazados internos
El gobierno colombiano, dirigido desde 2010 por el Presidente Juan Manuel Santos, ha modificado su discurso en favor de aquellos que han sido víctimas de violaciones de los derechos humanos debido al conflicto y la violencia dentro del país. Sin embargo, todavía no se han aplicado medidas eficaces para proteger los derechos de los desplazados internos y otras víctimas del conflicto en Colombia. El desplazamiento ha continuado en 2011 al mismo ritmo que en años anteriores, así como los ataques contra los desplazados internos y los defensores de los derechos humanos. Los desplazados internos siguen teniendo solamente acceso limitado a las necesidades básicas para vivir. (...)
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