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IDMC

Kosovo: Durable solutions still elusive 13 years after conflict

The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in Kosovo has dropped slightly in recent years. A September 2012 estimate by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) put the figure at 17,900, compared with around 19,700 in 2009. Most ethnic Serb IDPs live in northern Kosovo, where they rely on a system of education, policing and health care services provided entirely by Serbia.

10 October 2012 | Country Profile

IDMC

Serbia: Ten years after displacement, returns remain stalled but integration prospects improving

As of December 2010, there were an estimated 230,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) from Kosovo within Serbia, including an estimated 20,000 displaced Roma people who were never registered as displaced. In addition, 19,000 people remain displaced within Kosovo. The most vulnerable IDPs are Roma people, who tend to lack documentation and frequently endure extreme poverty in squalid informal settlements.

22 December 2010 | Country Profile

IDMC

Azerbaijan: After some 20 years, IDPs still face barriers to self-reliance

Over 586,000 people remain internally displaced in Azerbaijan after the Nagorno-Karabakh war ended with a ceasefire in 1994. The figure includes approximately 230,000 children born to internally displaced people (IDPs) since they fled their homes. Insecurity near the line of contact with Armenia continues to disrupt the livelihoods of IDPs and others who live nearby.

10 December 2010 | Country Profile

IDMC

Armenia: Need to monitor progress towards durable solutions

Some 20 years after the beginning of Armenia’s war with Azerbaijan and related violence, the 8,400 people internally displaced by the conflict have received hardly any government attention because other larger refugee and internally displaced groups have made competing demands on the state budget in a time of economic transition and crisis. International organisations have also largely neglected their plight.

23 February 2010 | Country Profile

IDMC

Kosovo: Need to support minority communities to prevent further displacement and allow durable solutions

Kosovo’s declaration of independence in 2008 created new uncertainty for 230,000 IDPs from Kosovo residing in Serbia and the 19,700 displaced within Kosovo; this overview focuses on the latter group. Despite initial fears of the contrary, there have been no major incidents targeting minority communities and no further displacement since 2008. Serbia has not recognised the independence of Kosovo, continuing to regard it as a UN-governed entity within its sovereign territory.

22 January 2010 | Country Profile

IDMC

Serbia: IDPs still seeking housing solutions and documentation to access their rights

In 1999, over 245,000 members of local minorities fled from or within Kosovo in fear of reprisals from the majority Albanian population after NATO air strikes forced the withdrawal of Yugoslav troops and ended years of oppression of ethnic Albanians. Kosovo’s declaration of independence in February 2008 created new uncertainty for those still displaced.

29 December 2009 | Country Profile

IDMC

Turkey: Need for continued improvement in response to protracted displacement

Around one million internally displaced people (IDPs) in Turkey continue to face protracted displacement, with many obstacles still standing in the way of durable solutions. Prevailing insecurity in south-eastern Turkey, the continuing presence of village guard militias and of mines, and under-development continue to bar their return. Integration in urban areas is still fraught with difficulties in the absence of targeted assistance, as IDPs, most of them Kurdish, face socio-economic marginalisation and discrimination.

26 October 2009 | Country Profile

IDMC

Russian Federation: Monitoring of IDPs and returnees still needed

At least 80,000 people are still internally displaced in Russia, more than 15 years after they were first forced to flee their homes. While large-scale hostilities ended several years ago, violence is still extensive in the North Caucasus and human rights abuses continue with perpetrators enjoying impunity. The economy is improving in Chechnya and reconstruction has brought impressive results in Grozny, but corruption and weak local governance continue to delay full recovery.

12 October 2009 | Country Profile

IDMC

Croatia: Housing rights and employment still preventing durable solutions

The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in Croatia has fallen significantly since the armed conflict between the Croat majority and the Serb minority ended in 1995. At the end of the war, around 250,000 people were displaced within Croatia, of whom 32,000 were Croatian Serbs. By June 2009, the number of IDPs had fallen to about 2,400, including over 1,600 ethnic Serbs.

01 September 2009 | Country Profile

IDMC

Georgia: IDPs in Georgia still need attention

Large-scale displacement was caused in August 2008 by conflict between Georgia and the Russian Federation over the fate of the secessionist territory of South Ossetia. Most of the people displaced were later able to return to their homes in areas adjacent to the administrative border with South Ossetia, and most ethnic Ossetians returned to their homes in South Ossetia. However, some 37,000 ethnic Georgians who fled South Ossetia have not been able to return by mid-2009.

09 July 2009 | Country Profile

IDMC

Russian Federation: Displaced people still struggling to lead a normal life

Up to 136,000 people remain displaced in Russia more than fifteen years after the beginning of armed conflict in the republics of the north Caucasus. Hundreds of thousands of people fled their homes as a result of an inter-ethnic conflict in North Ossetia in 1992 and separatist and counter-terrorist conflicts in Chechnya in 1994 and 1999.

12 November 2008 | Country Profile

IDMC

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Broader and improved support for durable solutions required

Twelve years after the war ended, the State Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees (MHRR) of Bosnia and Herzegovina estimated in June 2008 that some 125,000 registered internally displaced people (IDPs) remain. This figure is likely to remain stable in view of the limited number of returns over the past three years and the lack of support for other durable solutions.

28 August 2008 | Country Profile

IDMC

Azerbaijan: IDPs still trapped in poverty and dependence

Almost 15 years after signing a ceasefire agreement, Azerbaijan and Armenia have yet to resolve the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. In the absence of a peace agreement, some 570,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) are still prevented from returning to their homes in Azerbaijan.

14 July 2008 | Country Profile

IDMC

Struggling to integrate: Displaced people from Chechnya living in other areas of the Russian Federation

This report focuses on the situation of internally displaced people (IDPs) from the Chechen Republic living outside of the north Caucasus. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) visited the Russian Federation in March 2008, and interviewed IDPs of various ethnic backgrounds and their legal representatives in seven locations.

30 June 2008 | Country Profile

IDMC

Cyprus: Lack of political settlement prevents the displaced from fully enjoying their property rights

More than 30 years after having been displaced, more than 200,000 Greek and Turkish Cypriots still have unresolved issues related to their displacement. While they no longer have humanitarian needs and have largely integrated in the places they have settled, the displaced are still unable to take back possession of the property they left behind, or return to their homes.

18 December 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Serbia: Final status for Kosovo - Towards durable solutions for IDPs or new displacement risk?

After eight years of international administration over Kosovo, the situation of the estimated 227,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) in Serbia and Kosovo is hanging on the resolution of Kosovo’s status. The failure of the United Nations Security Council to adopt the Ahtisaari proposal on the final status of Kosovo has prolonged uncertainty which impedes progress towards durable solutions.

10 December 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Georgia: New IDP strategy awaits implementation

Tens of thousands of internally displaced people (IDPs) from Georgia’s secessionist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been waiting more than a decade for a solution to their displacement following conflicts which broke out in the early 1990s.

11 October 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Russian Federation: Government efforts help only some IDPs rebuild their lives

Despite the efforts of the Russian government and the international community, more than 150,000 people remain displaced in Russia more than a decade after the beginning of armed conflict. Hundreds of thousands of people fled their homes as a result of an inter-ethnic conflict in North Ossetia in 1992 and separatist conflicts in Chechnya which started in 1994 and again in 1999.

13 August 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Turkey: Profile of Internal Displacement

Renewed clashes between government forces and Kurdish militants in south-eastern Turkey have raised fears of a return to violence in the two-decade-old conflict which led to the internal displacement of hundreds of thousands of people, most of them Kurds. Despite the clashes, the conditions for the return of the displaced have continued to improve as the overall security situation remained largely stable and the Turkish government has taken a number of concrete steps to facilitate the return process.

26 July 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Turkey: Progress on national IDP policy paves way for further reforms

Turkey’s internally displaced people (IDPs) face uncertain prospects as a recent upsurge in violence in the south-eastern provinces threatens to undermine the positive impact of major human rights reforms which have been adopted since Turkey became a candidate for EU membership in 1999.

26 July 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Azerbaijan: IDP living conditions improve, but peace deal remains elusive

Almost 13 years after the signing of a ceasefire agreement, there are still some 690,000 people internally displaced in Azerbaijan from Nagorno-Karabakh, a self-proclaimed independent state within the territory of Azerbaijan, and its adjacent districts. There are also an estimated 30,000 mainly Armenian displaced persons in Nagorno-Karabakh who arrived from other regions of Azerbaijan.

05 March 2007 | Country Profile

IDMC

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sectarian divide continues to hamper residual return and reintegration of the displaced

More than ten years after the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement, there are still some 180,200 people internally displaced in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Further to a re-registration exercise completed by the authorities in 2005, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) dropped from 309,000 at the end of 2004 to 187,000 in Spring 2005. This decrease can be explained by the number of returns which had taken place since the previous registration in 2000 and by the fact that many displaced have decided to integrate locally.

25 October 2006 | Country Profile

IDMC

Georgia: IDPs’ living conditions remain miserable, as national strategy is being developed

Tens of thousands of people displaced from Georgia's secessionist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been living in limbo for more than a decade, waiting for an elusive solution to conflicts which broke out in the early 1990s.

01 September 2006 | Country Profile

IDMC

Croatia: Reforms come too late for most remaining ethnic Serb IDPs

The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in Croatia has fallen significantly since the armed hostilities between the Croat majority and the Serb minority ended in 1995. By December 2005, the total was considered to be between 5,000 and 7,000 including 1,700 ethnic Serbs. These figures disguise a huge disparity in return patterns between ethnic Serbs and Croats. While 99 per cent of the over 220,000 ethnic Croats displaced by the conflict have returned, little more than one-third of the over 300,000 ethnic Serb IDPs and refugees have been able to do so. In addition, about two-third of past returns are not sustainable, according to spot-checks and estimates by international organisations and NGOs.

18 April 2006 | Country Profile

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