The main cause of displacement in Peru has been the almost 20 years of internal conflict between the Peruvian Armed Forces and the armed opposition groups Sendero Luminoso and the Túpac Amaru revolutionary Movement (MRTA), which initiated their armed attacks in 1980 and 1984 respectively.
16 July 2002 | Country Profile
Since the 1970s Somalia has been in a state of fluctuating complex emergency, characterized by more than one interstate and internal wars, major famines, and a serious humanitarian crisis in the 1990s, partly the result of international mismanagement. The Somali conflict has centered around the appropria tion of resources such as land, relief items, as well as control over the livestock trade.
03 July 2002 | Country Profile
During the Lebanese civil war of 1975–1990, almost a third of the country's population was displaced. By 1990 when the war ended, in addition to the hundreds of thousands of people who had found refuge abroad, about 450,000 persons remained internally displaced in Lebanon (UNDP, 1997). Only approximately a third of them have returned home since.
19 June 2002 | Country Profile
Zimbabwe - until the mid-1990s grouped among the more prosperous and politically stable countries in Africa -- has since then seen both her economy and political stability deteriorate. Population movements, both voluntary and forced, have become an increasingly visible aspect of the new situation.
15 June 2002 | Country Profile
The displacement of populations in Colombia has been an endemic feature of the country's almost 40-year long civil war. The deep-seeded and complex conflict pits varying armed groups against one another – each with different interes ts and different affiliations. Although the armed factions have changed and transformed over the years, they are commonly described in one of three categories: armed insurgents, paramilitary groups, and official military and police.
14 June 2002 | Country Profile
Despite being hailed as a relatively peaceful and stable country in the African context, Senegal has been the scene of intermittent clashes between government forces and rebels of the separatist Mouvement des forces démocratiques de Casamance (MFDC) since the early 1980s.
12 June 2002 | Country Profile
Despite the international focus on the Middle East, little attention has been given to the tens of thousands of people displaced from the Syrian territory of the Golan Heights 35 years ago. The displacement occurred during the Six Day War in 1967 when Israel seized the Golan Heights, a strategic narrow stretch of land overlooking the Jordan Valley and the Sea of Galilee.
12 June 2002 | Country Profile
Although the prevailing instability in Guinea-Bissau following the civil war of 1998 – 1999 improved slightly, the political situation at the end of 2001 remained 'dangerous and volatile' (UN SC, 14 December 2001). While nearly all of the 300,000 to 350,000 persons initially displaced by the conflict in 1998 were thought to have returned to their homes, a string of ongoing political crises in 2001 and early 2002 continued to threaten peace and democracy in the country.
10 June 2002 | Country Profile
Iraq is host to the highest number of internally displaced people in the Middle East. Between 700,000 and 1 million people are estimated internally displaced in Iraq. Ethnic Kurds, Assyrians and Turkmen have suffered from several waves of displacement over the past two decades, mainly due to repression by the Iraqi government and to a lesser extent to inter–ethnic Kurdish fighting. Shia Arab populations in the south of Iraq have also been displaced from their homes due to government actions, particularly since 1991.
10 June 2002 | Country Profile
The Republic of Congo had been slowly recovering from a decade of political violence that left the country's infrastructure severely damaged and its people highly impoverished. Until March 2002, a tenuous peace was holding in the country, and the majority of the estimated 800,000 persons previously displaced by conflict had returned home.
06 June 2002 | Country Profile
While nearly all of those displaced by the conflict in 1998 were thought to have returned, a string of ongoing political crises in 2001 and early 2002 continued to threaten peace and democracy.
01 June 2002 | Overview
Existing data suggest that up to 460,000 persons are currently displaced in the Russian Federation as a result of armed conflict and violence in North Caucasus. The exact scope of internal displacement can, however, not be determined with precision. The vast majority of displaced persons have been forced to leave their homes in Chechnya, a region devastated by two conflicts in less than a decade.
29 May 2002 | Country Profile
Five years after the end of the brutal civil war that killed an estimated 200,000 people and forced more than half the country's 2.8 million population to flee their homes – 1.2 million of whom were internally displaced (US DOS, 1998) – lasting peace and stability in Liberia remained a pipe dream in 2002.
21 May 2002 | Country Profile
Following an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence between Malaitan and Guadalcanal communities on the main island of Guadalcanal in 1998-1999, 35,000 persons (nine percent of the national population) were forced from their homes.
16 May 2002 | Country Profile
Since 1993, the ethnic war in Burundi has caused the death of at least 250,000 persons, the vast majority of which have been civilians. The establishment of a power–sharing transitional government in November 2001 including ethnic Hutu and Tutsi representation was seen by local and international observers as a positive step to solve the conflict.
14 May 2002 | Country Profile
Internal displacement in Uganda has been caused by separate armed conflicts in northern and western areas as well as violent looting and cattle raids in the East since the mid–1990s. Conflict has affected about one quarter of the country's 45 districts, and about 550,000 people remained internally displaced by February 2002 (OCHA, March 2002).
10 April 2002 | Country Profile
The sheer magnitude of the problem of internal displacement in Angola is numbing. The figures are staggering and the conditions that surround them nearly unimaginable. At the end of 2001, the UN put the total number of persons displaced since the beginning of the decades-long conflict at 4.1 million – a third of the country's 12 million inhabitants.
04 April 2002 | Country Profile
Internal displacement in Kenya came to the forefront during the 1990s when escalated ethnic violence became closely linked to the re-introduction of multi party politics. As of March 2001 more than 200,000 Kenyans who had to leave their homes in the Rift Valley during the 1990s still remained internally displaced. The exact national figure is presently uncertain, return and resettlement have been spontaneous and new people have become displaced during recent years.
01 April 2002 | Country Profile
Many thousands of civilians have fled their homes in the latest round of inter-ethnic fighting to erupt in Bunia, the main town in DR Congo’s northeastern Ituri district, prompting top UN officials to warn of possible genocide. With rival ethnic militias battling for control of the town, amid reports of widespread killing and looting, UN peacekeepers (MONUC) are outnumbered and overwhelmed.
26 March 2002 | Country Profile
More than thirty years of civil war and inter tribal conflicts have caused tremendous suffering for the civilian Sudanese population. Since the conflict escalated in 1983 there have been an estimated two million war-related deaths and reliable sources estimate that 4 million or more remain internally displaced – with little prospect for large-scale returns in the near future.
26 March 2002 | Country Profile
Available figures suggested that towards the end of 2001, a total of some 400,000 people were internally displaced, of which 300,000 resulted from the latest ethnic clashes in central Nigeria during October 2001. In the beginning of 2002, communal fighting in Nasarawa and Plateau States (January), and ethnic clashes in Lagos (February) already displaced thousands.
22 March 2002 | Country Profile
The main cause of displacement in Sri Lanka is the armed conflict between the LTTE (The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and government forces. The underlying cause of the conflict, which has been ongoing since 1983 is a longstanding dispute between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities in the country.
20 March 2002 | Country Profile
More than seven years after the genocide, 70 percent of the Rwandan population remains under the poverty line and approximately 192,000 families still live in inadequate shelters (U.S. DOS 4 March 2002 & Brookings Initiative in Rwanda November 2001 Annex 4 III). Most of them were resettled in 1998-1999 by the Rwandan government in the context of the "villagization" process.
05 March 2002 | Country Profile
Significant gains in the peace process, resulting in improved security throughout the country, allowed for the return of some 45,000 IDPs to their homes of origin in 2001.
22 February 2002 | Country Profile