Nigeria https://www.internal-displacement.org/ en Lessons learned: Using self-reliance as a bridge to close the transition gap https://www.internal-displacement.org/expert-opinion/lessons-learned-using-self-reliance-as-a-bridge-to-close-the-transition-gap <span> Expert Opinion </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/132" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Frankie</span></span> <span>Tue, 03/30/2021 - 12:11</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">March 2021</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/expert_opinion/images/psychosocial-support.jpg" width="1280" height="720" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Boko Haram conflict in north-east Nigeria has displaced over <a href="https://displacement.iom.int/system/tdf/reports/DTM%20Report%20Round%2034%20.pdf?file=1&amp;type=node&amp;id=10647" target="_blank" title="IOM Displacement Tracking Matrix north-east Nigeria">two million people</a>, now forced to live in camps and with host communities. More than 50% of them have been displaced for over five years and continue to depend on infrequent relief distributions to meet their daily needs. </p> <p>Speaking to Internally Displaced People (IDPs) across camps and host communities in Abuja, I observed the ongoing vulnerabilities arising from their prolonged displacement. </p> <blockquote> <p>"I am worried when I think of what the children will eat..."</p> </blockquote> <p>"I am worried when I think of what the children will eat. When I sit down, I think, so I go out to look for people I can talk to," <a href="https://myinternallydisplacedpersons.org/book-my-name-is-aisha/" target="_blank" title="Book: My Name is Aisha by Toluwalola Kasali ">said Mariam.</a> </p> <p>"I lost everything, and I don't have a job. Sometimes, I find it difficult to eat…," said Zainab.</p> <p>Despite years of humanitarian assistance, displaced people in Nigeria remain vulnerable, and this affects their state of mind. The cycle of vulnerability and poverty between the humanitarian assistance phase and long-term reintegration creates what I have termed the "transition gap," which contributes to a prolonged stay in the camp. As protracted displacement becomes the <a href="https://cdn.odi.org/media/documents/9855.pdf" target="_blank" title="Humanitarian policy group: Protracted displacement: uncertain paths to self-reliance in exile">norm in humanitarian crises</a>, the transition gap needs to be closed using self-reliance as a bridge. This will improve IDPs state of mind and enable them to earn a living, creating a pathway to leaving the camp and reintegrating into society with dignity.</p> <p>In providing solutions for the transition gap, governments, non-government organisations, and development partners should recognise that there is no single pathway from displacement to reintegration. Assistance should focus on providing tools that will enable displaced people to choose their preferred form of reintegration voluntarily and safely.</p> <p>From my experience, solutions are most effective when developed by IDPs themselves. Below, I share some lessons learned from my experience designing, implementing, and evaluating psychosocial and vocational interventions, research, and anecdotal evidence from displaced people who participated in these projects at Area 1 Camp, Abuja.</p> <h2>Psychosocial support is an integral part of self-reliance </h2> <p>When displacement occurs, family and other social structures become broken, and IDPs experience trauma and a sense of loss regarding their identity. Prolonged displacement also leads to anxiety about their future. Community-based counselling, focus group discussions, and safe spaces should be introduced across all displacement phases to help IDPs share their experiences and seek support. This will improve their state of mind, resilience, and ability to make informed decisions, enabling them to overcome day-to-day challenges and rebuild social ties, including participation in school, skills training, and employment programmes. </p> <blockquote> <p>"The counselling has really helped me to stop thinking too much." </p> </blockquote> <p>"The counselling has really helped me to stop thinking too much. It has helped me to believe that there is hope in life," said Matina.</p> <h2>Opportunities for IDPs to earn a living will improve their quality of life</h2> <p>Displaced people have lost their sources of income, which affects their well-being and lowers their self-confidence. Therefore, solutions should focus on empowering IDPs with opportunities to earn a livelihood during the transition gap to make them less dependent on aid. Here, skills acquisition should include training in locally relevant and marketable skills to match the local labour demand or make self-employment a viable option.  </p> <p>"I have started a business. I made two hair wigs for sale, and I got good money," <a href="https://myinternallydisplacedpersons.org/impact-stories/" target="_blank" title="Internally Displaced Persons impact stories by Toluwalola Kasali ">said  Rashida</a>, who had been in the camp for over five years. She leveraged her external social ties to leave the camp and move into a neighbouring community where she opened a salon, having received a combination of counselling, hairdressing training, and business grants. </p> <p>While her story is inspiring, not all IDPs have access to resources and social networks. Many still face other practical challenges, including a lack of capital, customers, and opportunities. </p> <blockquote> <p>"I was running a business but stopped because there is no place to sell it." </p> </blockquote> <p>"I was running a business but stopped because there is no place to sell it," said Zainab.</p> <p>IDPs should be supported with financial grants to purchase equipment and start micro-businesses, improve their quality of life, and boost their self-confidence as they move towards a pathway for leaving the camp. </p> <figure role="group"><img alt="Skills acquisition in north-east Nigeria" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="58649d86-74a9-4f9b-a70f-1e7b464f396a" height="1069" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Skills%20Acquisition.jpg" width="1069" /><figcaption>Skills acquisition in north-east Nigeria. Photo by Toluwalola Kasali.</figcaption></figure><h2>Improve access to connections and resources outside the camp </h2> <p>An over-reliance on strong ties has limited IDPs from forming advantageous connections to weak ties (extended family and acquaintances outside the camp). By connecting displaced people to external resources, weak ties can act as a crucial bridge linking them to opportunities that can enable them to leave the camp, like Rashida. One of the young male participants in the mechanic training got an apprenticeship in a workshop through his uncle living outside the camp. In contrast, many others without external support have not had the same opportunity. Evidence shows that access to resources and weak ties usually act as a differentiating factor in the socio-economic progress of those who can leave the camp and those who are left behind.</p> <h2>Expand social safety net programmes</h2> <p>Access to government social safety net programmes, such as conditional and unconditional cash transfers, school feeding programmes, and fee waivers to access health and education services, will ensure that IDPs do not fall into extreme poverty and indignity. While the safety net provides a floor (living standard) below which IDPs should not fall, the self-reliance model pulls them up into a state of economic activity and dignity.</p> <blockquote> <p>"I use some money from my trading business to support other women in the camp."</p> </blockquote> <p>"I use some money from my trading business to support other women in the camp. I also use it to buy gloves and basic supplies to assist the women in delivering their babies," said Liyatu, the female camp leader.</p> <p>Liyatu's trading business currently enables her to support her family and assist other women in the camp as she considers her preferred form of reintegration. </p> <p>In the long-term, solutions should focus on ending protracted displacement by reducing the vulnerabilities that keep displaced people in camps. Emphasis should, therefore, be on tools that promote self-reliance aimed at achieving reintegration into society. </p> <p> </p> <p><em>Toluwalola Kasali is a finance and public policy consultant from Nigeria who has been working on the issue of internal displacement for over five years. She won the British Council Emerging Policy Leader Award for her work on forced displacement and her policy paper promoting self-reliance in protracted displacement at the London School of Economics won her the Lloyd Gruber Prize for the best paper in the school of public policy.</em></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/46" hreflang="en">Conflict &amp; Violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/48" hreflang="en">Durable Solutions</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/51" hreflang="en">Protracted Displacement</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/64" hreflang="en">Resilience</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Psychosocial support in north-east Nigeria. Photo by Toluwalola Kasali.</div> <div class="field field--name-field-banner-position field--type-list-string field--label-hidden field--item">Underneath title</div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-intro field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Toluwalola Kasali advocates for displaced people to achieve self-reliance in order to rebuild their lives with dignity and end their protracted displacement. In this guest blog, she shares the results of her work with IDPs in Nigeria and lessons learned to close the transition gap from aid-dependence to self-reliance. </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-img-focus-h field--type-list-string field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Image focus - horizontal</div> <div class="field--item">center</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-img-focus-v field--type-list-string field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Image focus - vertical</div> <div class="field--item">top</div> </div> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 10:11:28 +0000 IDMC-Frankie 1472 at https://www.internal-displacement.org Crises to watch: Internal displacement in 2021 https://www.internal-displacement.org/node/1451 <span>Crises to watch: Internal displacement in 2021</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/221" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Steve</span></span> <span>Mon, 01/18/2021 - 18:51</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item"><time datetime="2021-01-19T12:00:00Z">Tue, 01/19/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-iframe-url field--type-string field--label-hidden field--item">https://story.internal-displacement.org/crises-to-watch-2021/index.html</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2021-01/shutterstock_733945357.jpg" width="2560" height="1440" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/79" hreflang="en">Afghanistan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/86" hreflang="en">Australia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">Democratic Republic of the Congo</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128" hreflang="en">Ethiopia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/181" hreflang="en">Mozambique</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/198" hreflang="en">Philippines</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/213" hreflang="en">Somalia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/222" hreflang="en">Syria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/244" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/276" hreflang="en">Climate Change</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/46" hreflang="en">Conflict &amp; Violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/296" hreflang="en">Coronavirus</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Disasters</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/268" hreflang="en">Slow-onset Disasters</a></div> </div> Mon, 18 Jan 2021 17:51:21 +0000 IDMC-Steve 1451 at https://www.internal-displacement.org The displacement continuum: the relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movement in seven countries https://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/the-displacement-continuum-the-relationship-between-internal-displacement-and-cross <span> Publications </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/133" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Caressa</span></span> <span>Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:12</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">June 2020</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/publications/images/202006-cross-border-report-page-001.jpg" width="1240" height="1754" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The twentieth of June is World Refugee Day, dedicated to raising awareness of the situation of refugees. There are nearly twice as many internally displaced people (IDPs) as there are refugees, but there is no International Day of Internal Displacement. </p> <p>To bring attention to the invisible majority of displaced people, IDMC is investigating the relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movement. We do not know how many refugees were internally displaced previously, or how many refugees and migrants become displaced when they return to their country of origin. This is a major knowledge gap which IDMC is seeking to address by painting a more comprehensive picture of the entire displacement continuum through in-depth primary research. </p> <p>This report is based on the results of seven studies conducted in Afghanistan, Colombia, Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen between 2018 and 2019. In doing these studies, we conducted more than 1,470 survey interviews with IDPs, refugees and returning refugees, complementing our findings with qualitative data shared by research participants and key informants. </p> <table border="0" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 1080px;"><tbody><tr><td><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Aevfc3yRc4s" width="560"></iframe></td> <td><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jhsuFHJ6xik" width="560"></iframe></td> </tr></tbody></table></div> <div class="field field--name-field-document field--type-file field--label-hidden field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/publications/documents/202006-cross-border-report.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=7915705" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">Download (PDF, 7.9MB)</a></span><span class="file-size">7.55 MB</span></span></div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/79" hreflang="en">Afghanistan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/148" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/182" hreflang="en">Myanmar</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/215" hreflang="en">South Sudan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/244" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/267" hreflang="en">Cross-border</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">Returns</a></div> </div> Wed, 17 Jun 2020 14:12:45 +0000 IDMC-Caressa 1389 at https://www.internal-displacement.org 2020 Global report on internal displacement https://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2020-global-report-on-internal-displacement <span> Publications </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/134" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Rachel</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/27/2020 - 19:50</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">April 2020</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/publications/images/2020-grid-cover-web.jpg" width="595" height="842" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID) is the authoritative source of data and analysis on the risk, scale and impacts of internal displacement worldwide. The report offers insights into key challenges and opportunities in addressing and preventing displacement. It also highlights areas that require increased investment at local, national and global levels. GRID 2020 focuses on solutions to internal displacement, sharing best practise and providing examples of where governments have stepped up in increasing their knowledge, capacity and political will to address the issue. </p> <p><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/">GRID 2020 homepage</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/publications/documents/2020-IDMC-GRID-executive-summary.pdf" target="_blank">Read the summary</a> (PDF, 4.2MB)</p> <p><a data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1b0c2b7c-2826-445a-923d-19737772bff9" href="/sites/default/files/inline-files/GRID_Global_2020_French_web.pdf" title="GRID 2020 PDF in French">GRID 2020 in French</a> (PDF 20MB)</p> <p><a data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3030a372-8310-40a6-8a5f-ca9a943d67d3" href="/sites/default/files/inline-files/GRID_Global_2020_Spanish_web.pdf" title="GRID 2020 PDF in Spanish">GRID 2020 in Spanish</a> (PDF 18.8MB)</p> <p><a href="/sites/default/files/inline-files/IDMC_GRID_Global_2020_AR_web.pdf" title="GRID 2020 (Arabic)">GRID 2020 in Arabic</a> (PDF 19MB)</p> <p> </p> <h2>Spotlights</h2> <ul><li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-sub-saharan-africa.pdf#page=9" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight The Sahel: A deepening crisis of regional dimensions')" target="_blank">The Sahel: A deepening crisis of regional dimensions</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-sub-saharan-africa.pdf#page=11" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Mozambique: The long-term impacts of cyclones Idai and Kenneth')" target="_blank">Mozambique: The long-term impacts of cyclones Idai and Kenneth</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-sub-saharan-africa.pdf#page=13" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight White Nile basin: Chronic impacts, cyclical displacement')" target="_blank">White Nile basin: Chronic impacts, cyclical displacement</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-middle-east-north-africa.pdf#page=7" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Syria: No safe place to return to')" target="_blank">Syria: No safe place to return to</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-middle-east-north-africa.pdf#page=9" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Iraq: Solutions to displacement within reach')" target="_blank">Iraq: Solutions to displacement within reach</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-east-asia-pacific.pdf#page=7" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Myanmar: Highest displacement in years')" target="_blank">Myanmar: Highest displacement in years</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-americas.pdf#page=8" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Venezuela: First steps toward filling data gaps')" target="_blank">Venezuela: First steps toward filling data gaps</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-americas.pdf#page=10" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight The Bahamas: Dorian and the political dimensions of disaster risk')" target="_blank">The Bahamas: Dorian and the political dimensions of disaster risk</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-part2.pdf#page=5" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight SDGs')" target="_blank">Internal displacement under the SDGs and the Sendai Framework</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-part2.pdf#page=17" id="dldSection" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Philippines')" target="_blank">Philippines: </a><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2020/downloads/2020-IDMC-GRID-part2.pdf#page=17" onclick="track('PDF Download','Spotlight Philippines')" target="_blank">Painting a fuller picture of disaster displacement</a></li> </ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-document field--type-file field--label-hidden field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/publications/documents/2020-IDMC-GRID.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=19878932" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">2020-IDMC-GRID.pdf</a></span><span class="file-size">18.96 MB</span></span></div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/43" hreflang="en">Global report</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/100" hreflang="en">Burkina Faso</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Mali</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/187" hreflang="en">Niger</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/137" hreflang="en">Ghana</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/228" hreflang="en">Togo</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/92" hreflang="en">Benin</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/181" hreflang="en">Mozambique</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/215" hreflang="en">South Sudan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/218" hreflang="en">Sudan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/235" hreflang="en">Uganda</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/78" hreflang="en">Abyei</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/222" hreflang="en">Syria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/148" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/182" hreflang="en">Myanmar</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/242" hreflang="en">Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/198" hreflang="en">Philippines</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/89" hreflang="en">Bahamas</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/46" hreflang="en">Conflict &amp; Violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Disasters</a></div> </div> Mon, 27 Apr 2020 17:50:03 +0000 IDMC-Rachel 1372 at https://www.internal-displacement.org Displaced and isolated: the realities of COVID19 for internally displaced people in Lagos, Nigeria https://www.internal-displacement.org/expert-opinion/displaced-and-isolated-the-realities-of-covid19-for-internally-displaced-people-in <span> Expert Opinion </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/133" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Caressa</span></span> <span>Thu, 04/09/2020 - 13:28</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">April 2020</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/expert_opinion/images/nrc-samuel-jegede_1.jpg" width="2835" height="1890" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="intro-para">The pandemic has heralded difficult times for everyone, everywhere. Imagine what it is like for vulnerable internally displaced people in cities like Lagos with high levels of inequality. They moved to the city in search of safety, hoping for a chance to rebuild their lives. Instead, the virus is putting their lives and livelihoods at risk. </p> <p>As of 1st April, Nigeria had recorded 173 cases of Coronavirus, predominantly in Lagos, Abuja and Ogun state. With 82 cases, the city of Lagos is so far most affected. In a bid to contain the virus, Lagos has been under total shutdown since 29th March. The shutdown is difficult for all city dwellers, but it is particularly challenging for internally displaced people (IDPs) and the urban poor. </p> <p><a name="_3znysh7" id="_3znysh7"></a>With a estimated population of <a href="https://populationstat.com/nigeria/lagos">21 million</a>, Lagos is the largest city in Africa. The city’s <a href="https://www.ft.com/content/ff0595e4-26de-11e8-b27e-cc62a39d57a0">economy</a> is bigger than that of 42 African nations, including Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania. Its economic growth attracts rapid urbanisation: the metropolis is thought to receive some <a href="https://www.thecable.ng/123000-people-migrate-lagos-every-day-says-ambode">123,000 migrants</a> daily, including many IDPs. </p> <p>Although IDMC has not verified a figure for the total number of IDPs in Lagos, numbers are thought to exceed 100,000.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1">[1]</a> Existing structural inequalities and discriminatory policies make them susceptible to further vulnerabilities and human rights violations, including <a href="https://www.internationalboulevard.com/in-lagos-deporting-fellow-nigerians-to-nigeria/">deportation</a> back to their regions of origin. The shutdown and its enforcement will exacerbate these vulnerabilities and expose IDPs in Lagos to further violations of human rights.</p> <h2>Secondary displacement</h2> <p>Displaced people in Lagos face severe <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1016/j.soscij.2018.12.003">discrimination</a> in the city’s existing slum communities, which often forces them to set up shelters in new informal settlements. Others remain homeless and sleep in churches, under bridges, or in abandoned properties. The Lagos shutdown has put displaced people in the spotlight and has seen mass eviction from places that would not otherwise be visible to the Lagos state enforcement authorities. </p> <p>Videos circulating on social media suggest that vulnerable groups living in unsafe shelters are being victimised. Displaced people living under bridges and in abandoned properties, including many women and children, reported that their shelters had been raided.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2">[2]</a> Human rights activist <a href="https://punchng.com/withdraw-soldiers-from-enforcing-lockdown-falana-tells-buhari/">Femi Falana</a> has warned that the enforcement of the stay-at-home order is leading to human right abuses and violence against vulnerable groups. This could be resulting in secondary displacement for displaced populations. </p> <h2>Economic vulnerabilities</h2> <p>Many of Lagos’ displaced people were previously engaged in small-scale farming. They often lack the necessary skills required to gain formal employment in cities, and therefore depend on the informal economy to make ends meet. Even this requires at least a little start-up capital, which means men stand a higher chance of making an income than women.</p> <p>The majority of displaced people in Lagos earn a daily living in the informal transportation system, in open markets or through street trading. The total shutdown has made it impossible for many displaced people to work. Although the state government is <a href="https://www.premiumtimesng.com/coronavirus/384772-govt-will-provide-relief-materials-for-abuja-lagos-residents-buhari.html">distributing relief materials</a>, reports from the displaced communities suggest that none have yet benefited from such distributions. </p> <p><em>“I live in an unfinished building in Lekki, Lagos with my family and other IDP community people. I work as a marketer and delivery man for a Chinese hair extension company and I was earning two Naira daily. On Sunday, when the lockdown was announced, I did not have any chance to even go and buy food with the little money I had because it was already night. I have five children, what will I feed them for two weeks? The Lagos state government claims to be distributing food since Monday, but none of the other IDPs I know in Lagos have received food. How can we receive the food when we cannot even allow them to see that we are living here?”</em></p> <h2>Health risks</h2> <p>Overcrowding of displaced people’s shelters in cities makes social distancing all but impossible. These shelters often lack access to water and sanitation, which can further undermine attempts to contain the disease. </p> <p>Many displaced people rely on purchasing clean water from informal water vendors. Because of the lockdown these vendors are no longer able to work, which makes displaced people susceptible to drinking unsafe water. This could lead to another health crisis within this already vulnerable community.  </p> <p>Covid19 is both heightening and bringing to the fore the vulnerabilities of Lagos’ displaced population, typically invisibilised in the city. The lack of consideration for displaced people in the planning of the shutdown shows that the city lacks the social structures to support vulnerable citizens in emergencies. Yet loss of income due to Covid19 threatens to significantly increase the number of poor people in Lagos and have severe consequences for the city’s sustainable development. </p> <p>The pandemic has prompted widespread fears that Covid19 could spread to the over <a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/nigeria">2 million</a> internally displaced people living in Nigeria’s conflict-affected northeast. While humanitarian actors have rushed to develop <a href="https://www.nrc.no/globalassets/emergency-updates/coronavirus/nrc-covid-19-update-1.pdf">contingency plans</a> in preparedness for an outbreak, the situation of displaced people in Lagos reinforces the need for prevention and response to extend beyond the northeast to include displaced people in Nigeria’s cities. </p> <p><em>Authored by researcher and guest blogger Rebecca Enobong Roberts.</em></p> <div> <hr size="1" /><div id="ftn1"> <p><a href="applewebdata://6A6D751E-A90F-4B16-92E2-6DA11437867C#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1">[1]</a> Working paper by Roberts and Okanya (2020), under review for publication</p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p><a href="applewebdata://6A6D751E-A90F-4B16-92E2-6DA11437867C#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2">[2]</a> Testimonies obtained by the author </p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/296" hreflang="en">Coronavirus</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/264" hreflang="en">Urban Displacement</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">COVID19 response in Nigeria. Credit: Samuel Jegede/NRC</div> Thu, 09 Apr 2020 11:28:10 +0000 IDMC-Caressa 1363 at https://www.internal-displacement.org Assessing the severity of displacement https://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/assessing-the-severity-of-displacement <span> Publications </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/221" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Steve</span></span> <span>Tue, 02/25/2020 - 11:23</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">February 2020</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/publications/images/cover_severity_2019_10-16.jpg" width="816" height="1154" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>IDMC has developed a methodology to assess the severity of internal displacement, call attention to situations of particular concern, highlight key threats to IDPs’ safety and wellbeing, and better measure progress towards finding solutions to internal displacement. The assessment, conducted between January and July 2019, compares the severity of displacement across groups of IDPs displaced by conflict in different countries and contexts.</p> <p>The severity assessment is qualitative in nature and aims to provide high-quality data which can support governments, humanitarian organisations and other key stakeholders in responding to and preventing situations of displacement. The assessment is a tool to provide contextual information on the living conditions of IDPs and highlight critical areas for intervention in different settings. It should be used as an entry point into further analysis that can support decision-making and informed investments.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document field--type-file field--label-hidden field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/publications/documents/Severity%20Report%202019.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=2430394" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">Download (PDF 1.6MB)</a></span><span class="file-size">2.32 MB</span></span></div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/79" hreflang="en">Afghanistan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/88" hreflang="en">Azerbaijan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/90" hreflang="en">Bangladesh</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/100" hreflang="en">Burkina Faso</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/101" hreflang="en">Burundi</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/104" hreflang="en">Cameroon</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/107" hreflang="en">Central African Republic</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/108" hreflang="en">Chad</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/111" hreflang="en">Colombia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/116" hreflang="en">Cote dIvoire</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">Cyprus</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="en">Democratic Republic of the Congo</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128" hreflang="en">Ethiopia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/135" hreflang="en">Georgia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/137" hreflang="en">Ghana</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/139" hreflang="en">Guatemala</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/143" hreflang="en">Honduras</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/145" hreflang="en">India</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/148" hreflang="en">Iraq</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/156" hreflang="en">Kenya</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/166" hreflang="en">Libya</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/171" hreflang="en">Mali</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/175" hreflang="en">Mexico</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/182" hreflang="en">Myanmar</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/187" hreflang="en">Niger</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/191" hreflang="en">Pakistan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/195" hreflang="en">Papua New Guinea</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/198" hreflang="en">Philippines</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/213" hreflang="en">Somalia</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/215" hreflang="en">South Sudan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/217" hreflang="en">Sri Lanka</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/218" hreflang="en">Sudan</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/222" hreflang="en">Syria</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/236" hreflang="en">Ukraine</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/244" hreflang="en">Yemen</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/46" hreflang="en">Conflict &amp; Violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/61" hreflang="en">IDP Tools &amp; Frameworks</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/292" hreflang="en">Vulnerability</a></div> </div> Tue, 25 Feb 2020 10:23:44 +0000 IDMC-Steve 1349 at https://www.internal-displacement.org Partner spotlight: Internal displacement and cross-border movements https://www.internal-displacement.org/partner-spotlight/ffo-internal-displacement-cross-border-movements <span>Partner spotlight: Internal displacement and cross-border movements</span> <div class="field field--name-field-spotlight-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-960" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/sites/default/files/2020-01/old-maiduguri-hc_cover.jpg);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding hasimg darkgrey nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content "> <h1 class="paragraph-title" style="margin-bottom:25px;"> A partnership with Germany’s Federal Foreign Office </h1> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="intro-para">The majority of people who flee their homes to escape conflict, violence and disasters do not cross an international border. Of the 70.8 million people forcibly displaced around the world, 41.3 million – close to six out of ten – are internally displaced people.</p> <p class="intro-para">We don’t know how many refugees were previously internally displaced, or how many refugees and migrants become displaced when they return to their country of origin. This is a major knowledge gap which IDMC is seeking address by painting a more quantitative and qualitative picture of the entire displacement continuum.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-961" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding noimg number column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content "> <h1 class="paragraph-title" style="margin-bottom:25px;"> Objectives </h1> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><ol><li>Examine drivers of displacement and onward movement within and across borders.</li> <li>Provide a better understanding of priorities and preconditions for voluntary return.</li> <li>Examine obstacles to and opportunities for durable solutions for IDPs and returning refugees.</li> <li>Review available data on the phenomena and explore how to enhance the monitoring.</li> </ol></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"><div class="row xs-padding flex_content_2_col_container "> <div class="container"> <div class="paragraph-title"> How we worked </div> <div class="row paragraph-content " > <div class="col-sm-6 left-col text-center"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/optimized/public/2020-01/image2_1920-1080_1.jpg?itok=owaDvp01"> <p><em></em></p> </div> <div class="col-sm-6 right-col"> <div class="right-title"> <div></div> <div></div> <div class="right-title-line"></div> </div> <div class="right-text"> <div> <p>The global focus on refugees contrasts starkly with the meagre coverage given to the millions of people displaced within their own countries. To put internal displacement back on the agenda, IDMC has been investigating the relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movements.</p> <p>With the support of <a href="https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en">Germany’s Federal Foreign Office</a>, we conducted three case studies in Nigeria, South Sudan and Afghanistan. We conducted 669 survey interviews with internally displaced people and returning refugees in <a href="/sites/default/files/publications/documents/201908-nigeria-cross-border-report.pdf">Nigeria</a>, <a href="/sites/default/files/publications/documents/201911-ssudan-cross-border-report.pdf">South Sudan</a> and Afghanistan. We complemented the survey findings with the stories shared by research participants and additional key informant interviews.</p> <p>In addition, we also conducted two workshops with relevant partners in Nigeria and South Sudan to map the data landscape and harmonise standards for monitoring internal and cross-border displacement.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-963" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding noimg nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content "> <h1 class="paragraph-title" style="margin-bottom:25px;"> What we found </h1> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>61.5% of the returning refugees we spoke to had been internally displaced before leaving their country of origin, and over a third had suffered multiple internal displacements before crossing the border to seek refuge abroad.</p> <p><img alt="Pie chart showing percentage of surveyed people who had been previously displaced" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f78520dc-b5ad-4e8f-b03c-ab64429a0732" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/graph1_16-9_2.jpg" /></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-965" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding noimg nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content empty-title"> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Cross-border movements are often a symptom of the failure to protect and assist IDPs in their own country. Only by understanding and addressing causes and drivers of internal displacement will we be able to tackle the global refugee crisis head-on.</p> <h3>When cost prevents movement, it leaves IDPs at risk</h3> <p>Among those who didn’t cross borders, 54% cited cost as a barrier to travel. Especially following the financial losses incurred during initial displacement, many IDPs find themselves unable to afford the costs of onward movement.</p> <p>The inability to seek refuge abroad can put IDPs’ lives at risk. Civilian casualties in Afghanistan are reaching unprecedented levels.</p> <h3>Returns are often motivated by difficult conditions in displacement</h3> <p>Large numbers of vulnerable refugees and migrants from Afghanistan and Nigeria have been forcibly returned to their countries of origin. Even among those who return voluntarily, returns are rarely entirely free from coercion. Some South Sudanese refugees, for example, returned to their country of origin because of political unrest in Sudan. Given the difficulties faced in displacement, many returns take place because of the lack of acceptable alternatives.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row quote1" id="quote1-966"> <div class="quote1-bg noimg darkgrey" style="height:100%; width:100%; background-image:url(/); background-size: cover; /* filter: grayscale(1); */ z-index:-1;background-position:center center"> <div class="quote1-content" style="height:100%; width:100%; background:rgba(52,50,51,0.3); "> <div class="container" > <div class="q-content"> <p class="q-text">“I lost everything that could have earned me money for travelling.” </p> <p class="q-name"> <span class="pl5">Joyce (South Sudan)</span> </p> <hr /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row quote1" id="quote1-968"> <div class="quote1-bg noimg darkgrey" style="height:100%; width:100%; background-image:url(/); background-size: cover; /* filter: grayscale(1); */ z-index:-1;background-position:center center"> <div class="quote1-content" style="height:100%; width:100%; background:rgba(52,50,51,0.3); "> <div class="container" > <div class="q-content"> <p class="q-text">“We were in critical conditions. There was shelter and water, but there was no food.” </p> <p class="q-name"> <span class="pl5">Emmanuel (Nigeria) </span> </p> <hr /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-969" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding noimg nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content empty-title"> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Many returning refugees are now internally displaced</h3> <p>Nearly 74 % of returning refugees surveyed in Nigeria, South Sudan and Afghanistan were not living in their area of origin at the time of the research. Many are afraid of continued insecurity. Others tried to go back, only to find that their property has been damaged or destroyed. Some were forced to flee again.</p> <p>Just as IDPs risk becoming refugees in the absence of progress towards durable solutions, today’s returning refugees run the risk of becoming tomorrow’s IDPs. Refugees who are unable to return to their former homes or sustainably integrate elsewhere become de facto internally displaced; others may be forced to move again if underlying drivers of displacement remain unaddressed. Premature or forcible returns, clearly, are no solution to refugee crises.</p> <p><img alt="Graph showing percentages of IDPs surveyed in Nigeria, South Sudan and Afghanistan who are and are not living in their area of origin currently" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="91153871-ec9f-4abe-b215-ba8efb19145b" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/graph2_16-9.jpg" /></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row quote1" id="quote1-970"> <div class="quote1-bg noimg darkgrey" style="height:100%; width:100%; background-image:url(/); background-size: cover; /* filter: grayscale(1); */ z-index:-1;background-position:center center"> <div class="quote1-content" style="height:100%; width:100%; background:rgba(52,50,51,0.3); "> <div class="container" > <div class="q-content"> <p class="q-text">“Boko Haram chased us out, and we fled to Cameroon. When we came back, they chased us out again. The third time we escaped and we never returned.” </p> <p class="q-name"> <span class="pl5">Grace (Nigeria)</span> </p> <hr /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-971" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/sites/default/files/2020-01/image3_1920-1080_0.jpg);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding hasimg nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content empty-title"> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Joy's story</h3> <p>Joy’s hometown in north-eastern Nigeria has been the subject of repeated attacks by Boko Haram. Because was close to the border, every time they attacked she would flee into Cameroon. As soon as Boko Haram left, she returned to her home. “That was the routine, until one day they came and took the town for good.”</p> <p>After the town was taken by Boko Haram, she was no longer able to return. Conditions in Cameroon were very difficult. “We were almost starving”, she recalled. Five years ago, she decided to return to Nigeria. Since then, she has been living in a camp in Maiduguri. The lack of livelihood opportunities is a challenge, and she relies on food rations provided by the government. “There is nothing to do here, we are sitting idle”.</p> <p>Once it is safe, Joy wants to return to her former home. “If we could go back to where our homes are, who would stay here?”</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field--item"> <div class="row text-block" id="tb-972" style="position:relative;"> <div class="div-image-fullwidth grayscale" style="background-image:url(/);"></div> <div class="text-block-text xs-padding noimg nonumber column-1" style="position: relative; width:100%; height:100%;"> <div class="container text-block-content "> <h1 class="paragraph-title" style="margin-bottom:25px;"> What next? </h1> <div class="field field--name-field-paragraph-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Thanks to this research, we know there is a strong relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movements. Now, there is a window of opportunity for further uptake and impact, for example as part of the upcoming High-Level Panel on internal displacement. Moving forward, we need to ensure our findings are used effectively to prevent and respond to internal displacement, mitigate the risk of premature returns, and provide opportunities for durable solutions for both IDPs and returning refugees.</p> <p>We will also engage with partners who can support contextual analysis and collect data on displacement metrics with the aim of refining the analytical framework. Then, we will build and resource the analysis in a sustainable manner in support of humanitarian needs assessments and response plans, as well as national development strategies.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/user/221" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Steve</span></span> <span>Tue, 01/14/2020 - 09:09</span> Tue, 14 Jan 2020 08:09:05 +0000 IDMC-Steve 1333 at https://www.internal-displacement.org North-east Nigeria: A massive internal displacement crisis https://www.internal-displacement.org/features/nigeria-internal-displacement-crisis-conflict-floods <span>North-east Nigeria: A massive internal displacement crisis</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/221" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Steve</span></span> <span>Tue, 12/03/2019 - 14:50</span> <div class="field field--name-field-iframe-url field--type-string field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">iframe link</div> <div class="field--item">https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/9467fc5b9acf4e008c327e05b0b22ddb</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Country</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Theme</div> <div class="field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/46" hreflang="en">Conflict &amp; Violence</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Disasters</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/51" hreflang="en">Protracted Displacement</a></div> </div> </div> Tue, 03 Dec 2019 13:50:06 +0000 IDMC-Steve 1312 at https://www.internal-displacement.org Looking beyond Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region https://www.internal-displacement.org/expert-opinion/looking-beyond-boko-haram-in-the-lake-chad-region <span> Expert Opinion </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/134" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Rachel</span></span> <span>Wed, 09/11/2019 - 11:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">September 2019</div> <div class="field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/authors/clementine-andre" hreflang="en">Clémentine André</a></div> <span class="comma-separator">,</span> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/expert_opinion/images/201909-lake-chad-blog-icrcnga0610.jpg" width="1280" height="853" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em>IDMC's monitoring fellow for West Africa, Clémentine André, explores some of the underreported violence that has led to internal displacement in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria in the past couple of months.  </em></p> <p>In recent weeks, many <a href="https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/07/death-anguish-flickers-hope-10-years-boko-haram-190729161220796.html">reports and articles</a> have highlighted the dreadful milestone of Boko Haram’s 10-year insurgency across Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, which has forcibly displaced millions of people. Unfortunately, the Islamic extremist group, which has perpetrated large-scale human rights abuses and caused the deaths of thousands of people, is not the only driver of displacement in the region. Other conflicts have had a significant impact on people’s security but, with restricted access and limited data, they have been overlooked.</p> <p>As we release our <a href="http://www.internal-displacement.org/mid-year-figures" target="_blank" title="Mid-year figures">mid-year figures</a> – which show that this complex web of violence in West Africa is driving high levels of displacement – we explore some of these overlooked crises and ask: has the decade-long insecurity in the Lake Chad region exacerbated these ongoing or emerging conflicts? Are the conflicts inter-linked, or should they be thought of as stand-alone crises? Why have they not received the same level of international concern and media awareness as the Boko Haram insurgency?</p> <h3>A cultural and educational crisis in the anglophone regions of Cameroon</h3> <p>There has been a significant increase in violence and new displacements in the anglophone regions of Cameroon in the past couple of years, as a result of <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/world/cameroon-anglophone-crisis/">growing tensions with the francophone-led government and the anglophone population</a> in the Northwest, Southwest, West and Littoral regions. The conflict is culturally and educationally rooted and can be boiled down to what language should be taught and used in these regions. There were more than 437,000 new displacements in the impacted states in 2018 – 20 times more than in the Far North region, where Boko Haram regularly carries out attacks and where most displacements are usually recorded. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) has not yet been able to obtain any new information this year on the impact of the worsening conflict on levels of displacement for the anglophone population. The lack of information and access, owing to security challenges and the political nature of the conflict, has resulted in underreporting and, as such, a limited humanitarian response relative to the scale and severity of the crisis. International organisations and local media have reported the <a href="https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/70912.pdf">destruction of homes, looting of schools and violence against civilians</a> as key triggers of new displacements. As of September 2019, however, we are still unable to say with certainty how many people have lost their homes, how many children are not attending schools and how many families have been separated in the past six months. This crisis, which is unfolding rapidly, requires further attention and assistance.</p> <h3>Criminal activity and violent acts in north-west Nigeria</h3> <p>IDMC recorded more than 74,000 new displacements between January and June 2019 in north-west Nigeria. These displacements were rooted in <a href="https://news.yahoo.com/gunmen-kill-16-villagers-northern-nigeria-officials-150220617.html">acts of banditry</a>, criminal activities and communal clashes across the states of Sokoto, Zamfara and Katsina, at the Niger border. Although this crisis is not new, reports about its <a href="https://displacement.iom.int/system/tdf/reports/Nigeria%20-%20Katsina%2C%20Sokoto%20and%20Zamfara%20Displacements%20Flash%20Report%20%20%2811%20June%202019%29.pdf?file=1&amp;type=node&amp;id=5922">impacts</a> have only recently surfaced. It has already caused more displacements this year than in the north-east states, which have long been the epicentre of the Boko Haram insurgency. However, the border states have received very little international attention and humanitarian presence. The evolving situation in the north-west can be thought of as rural banditry, which will continue to strengthen amid the breakdown of authority at the local and state levels. This has created a complex informal security situation in the three north-west states and has triggered the displacement of tens of thousands of families.</p> <h3><img alt="West Africa map" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6447e2d3-9878-4f2e-bc40-2050c7341c10" height="516" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/201909-WestAfricaBlog-map.png" width="624" /></h3> <h3>The violent spillover from Mali and Burkina Faso into the south-western states of Niger</h3> <p>The security situation has also deteriorated in Niger’s south-western states of Tahoua and Tillaberi in recent months. Niger has experienced an upsurge of violent attacks and clashes near its borders with Burkina Faso and Mali, and there have been at least 42,000 new displacements in the country since January 2019. Displacements in the south-western states have taken the form of preventative movements by a population fearful of violence and jihadist attacks, <a href="https://www.acleddata.com/2019/06/19/explosive-developments-the-growing-threat-of-ieds-in-western-niger/">widespread explosive hazards</a> and direct attacks against civilians from different militant groups. Another humanitarian situation is simultaneously unfolding in the southern state of Maradi, with an <a href="http://www.reachresourcecentre.info/system/files/resource-documents/reach_ner_briefing_note_maradi_june2019.pdf">influx of refugees from north-west Nigeria</a> fleeing violent acts of rural banditry. These northward population movements are likely to lead to a strain on natural resources, which are already scarce as Niger suffers the effects of climate change and longer drought seasons.</p> <h3>Intercommunal violence and ongoing clashes in eastern Chad</h3> <p>While data on the number of displacements in other parts of Chad is hard to come by, <a href="https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/08/chad-intercommunal-conflict-national-concern-37-killed-190809151848419.html">contextual evidence</a> points to an increase in intercommunal violence in the country’s eastern regions. IDMC was not able to obtain any information of new displacements in 2018 for the Lac region, which has been most severely impacted by the Boko Haram insurgency. This does not mean that there were no displacements, but rather points to the lack of systematic data collection at the time. In contrast, between January to June of this year, there were over 44,000 new displacements in the Lac province. This illustrates the bigger challenges of data collection and dissemination in highly volatile and politicised contexts.</p> <h3>The convergence of crises in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria: the challenge of comprehensive and informed analysis on multifaceted conflicts</h3> <p><a href="https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/AFR4495032018ENGLISH.PDF">Clashes between farmers and herders</a> in Nigeria’s Middle Belt states led to more deaths than the Boko Haram conflict last year. This intercommunal crisis in the country’s central states cannot be understood in its entirety however without assessing the impact of the Boko Haram insurgency over the past ten years, which has caused the southward displacement of thousands of Nigerians in search of cultivable land and livelihood opportunities. The displacements that occurred in north-west Nigeria as a result of criminal violence did not stop at the northern border, and more than 35,000 people are believed to have crossed northwards into Niger. In eastern Chad, ongoing communal violence cannot be seen as entirely separate from the worsening security situation in its eastern neighbour Sudan.</p> <p>Though at times extremely different in their causes, all these crises cannot be detached from the overall unstable and highly insecure context of the broader region. The way they are discussed, addressed and treated is highly dependent on the information available. In many instances, the security situation – coupled with political sensitivities and the willingness (or permission) to share data – has meant that information is not updated as often as it needs to be. This can lead to a reduction in the overall humanitarian and political response and capacity to aid the displaced population and can lead to a displacement situation going unnoticed. </p> <p>A crisis that lacks information and clear figures on the scale of displacements is likely to not generate the necessary interest, political will and resources as a well-covered conflict will. Beyond Boko Haram, this is what is happening right now in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The different crises across the four countries are a stark reminder that better data and information collection and dissemination are required for not only an improved humanitarian response but also for a longer-term approach to stability and prosperity in the region.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/104" hreflang="en">Cameroon</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/108" hreflang="en">Chad</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/187" hreflang="en">Niger</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image-caption field--type-string-long field--label-hidden field--item">Women cook in an open area of an internally displaced camp in Kogi State, Nigeria. Photo: IFRC/Corrie Butler</div> Wed, 11 Sep 2019 09:46:08 +0000 IDMC-Rachel 1270 at https://www.internal-displacement.org "Once the road is safe" - Displacement and return in north-eastern Nigeria https://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/once-the-road-is-safe-displacement-and-return-in-north-eastern-nigeria <span> Publications </span><span><span lang="" about="/user/132" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">IDMC-Frankie</span></span> <span>Thu, 08/22/2019 - 15:32</span> <div class="field field--name-field-published field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field--item">August 2019</div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/publications/images/0001_2.jpg" width="2481" height="3508" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>North-eastern Nigeria has borne the brunt of so-called Boko Haram’s jihadist insurgency since 2009. More than 1.9 million people were internally displaced as a result of the group’s violence as of January 2019, and over 230,000 refugees have sought shelter in Cameroon, Chad and Niger.</p> <p>This report, which is based on interviews with 345 internally displaced people (IDPs) and returning refugees, examines the drivers of displacement and onward movement within and across Nigeria’s borders, provides a better understanding of people’s priorities and preconditions for return, and explores obstacles and opportunities for durable solutions.</p> <p>The report is part of IDMC’s <a href="http://www.internal-displacement.org/research-areas/internal-to-cross-border-displacement" target="_blank" title="Internal to cross-border displacement">“Invisible Majority” thematic series</a>, which examines the relationship between internal displacement and cross-border movements. </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-document field--type-file field--label-hidden field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/publications/documents/201908-nigeria-cross-border-report.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=1509727" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">Download (PDF, 1.4MB)</a></span><span class="file-size">1.44 MB</span></span></div> <div class="field field--name-field-region field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76" hreflang="en">Sub-Saharan Africa</a></div> <div class="field field--name-field-country field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/188" hreflang="en">Nigeria</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-theme field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/57" hreflang="en">Armed Groups</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/267" hreflang="en">Cross-border</a></div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/49" hreflang="en">Returns</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Aug 2019 13:32:44 +0000 IDMC-Frankie 1262 at https://www.internal-displacement.org